HISTORY OF NAZI FLAK TOWERS
German leaders realized the importance of bombardment aviation and air defense during the process of re-weaponing of new aircraft forces – Luftwaffe. The common practice of air defense barrier outside the cities turned to be inefficient within the realities of a new World War. This approach makes cities almost unarmed if the aircrafts managed to reach the center. German Luftwaffe obtained great experience of city bombing and aircraft defense in Poland, when German air forces destroyed significant part of Warsaw. And, of course, Battle for Britain, had transformed the realities of war and aircraft defense. The turning point for the future Nazi Flak towers was a bombing raid on Berlin, accomplished by Brits on August 26, 1940. It had a little more than just military impact, but physiological for the both sides. Adolf Hitler was impressed by this event and he now had interest in Anti Aircraft Towers (Flakturm or Flakturme) – project of new massive Flak towers, which would have to protect German cities, such as Berlin and others. Nazi Fuhrer gave strict instructions to force the construction of the new type of anti aircraft defense. Hitler even made his own drawings of the future flak towers both with Albert Speer. Alongside with Berlin, Flakturm (Flak towers or anti aircraft towers) tended to defend Hamburg and Vienna in the first places.
ANTI AIRCRAFT TOWERS (FLAK TOWERS) AND ITS TYPES
German Flak towers had both to protect center districts of big cities and be a part of compact urban area of Berlin, Hamburg and Vienna. Anti Aircraft Flak towers had to deliver fire within 360* range and to trim its guns vertically. New tower defense system also considered a space for radar sets and for giant lights. Flak towers would have to be constructed on pair basis to separate air defense. One was called Gefechtsturm or G-Turm or G-tower – gun tower with guns (also battery tower, Large Flak Tower). The second supporting one flak tower was called Leitturm or L-turm or L-tower – lead tower or fire-control tower. Anti Craft towers were connected with wires and tunnels on a distance of 200-400 meters. As the construction of German flak towers tailed away from 1940 till the end of War in 1945, the architecture of Luftwaffe tower defense modified. These alterations had impact both on Gun tower and Fire-Control tower contracture.
Generation 1. Were in process from 1940 till the end of 1942 and presented by all three Flakturm complexes in Berlin (all flak towers in Berlin are of Generation 1) and one pair of towers in Luftwaffe. Flacturm Wien did not have towers of the first generation.
Generation 2. Were constructed from October 1942 till October 1944 and presented with two pairs of anti aircraft towers. One Flakturm complex was built in Hamburg and one in Vienna (first Wien Flacturm in Arenbergpark).
Generation 3. Two pairs of Vienna Flak Towers of the third generation were constructed from May 1943 till January 1945 and have become the last Nazi flak towers in German Reich. Other cities were not destined to have WWII tower defense.
FLACTURM WIEN – VIENNA ANTI AIRCRAFT TOWERS
FLAKTURM IN ARENBERGPARK (2d generation)
Construction of this pair of Vienna anti aircraft flak towers of the Generation 2 was started in October 1943 and was ready for operation already in December 1943. This complex became the first WWII tower defense Flakturm in Vienna.
Gun Tower in Arenbergpark is of 42 meters high with 57 meters’ sides. It has walls of 1-3 meters’ thick within different parts. This Vienna Flak tower had 8 stores and contained multiple premises and elevators. The fire power of Arenbergpark Flakturm involved 8 guns of 128 mm caliber and 16 guns of 20 mm caliber. Upper floors and fire stations contained a complex system of air ventilation to get reed of gun gases.
Fire Control tower in Arenbergpark is of 44 meters high with quadrate architecture (flak tower sides are 23 and 39 meters). Alongside with fire control infrastructure of anti aircraft tower defense, four of eight floors of this lead tower Flakturm placed air-craft shelter for enormous 15 000 people, both with hospital for 800 cots. After the World War Two the lower premises of these Flak tower in Vienna was used as storage. Today a plate on the garage door says that the Flakturme is now a storage of construction company, named “BIG” – a place on reconstruction with now does not receive visitors for exhibitions.
WIEN FLACTURM IN STIFTSKASERNE / ESTERHAZYPARK
Construction of the second Flacturm Wien flak tower anti aircraft complex started in October 1943 with first exploitation in July 1944. Flak towers of the third generations were built only in Vienna. Unless two Nazi flak towers in Stiftskaserne and Esterhazypark were built on the different levels, it was compensated with architecture.
Vienna Flak Gun tower in Stiftskaserne located on a small highness with its own 45 meters high, nine stores and 43 meters in diameter. Stiftskaserne Vienna anti aircraft tower seems to be round but ib fact in has sixteen corners. It was armed with eight guns of 128 mm in four pairs and with 32 guns of 20 mm (eights stations of four guns). Today this particular Vienna flak tower is stuck between buildings, most of which is a property of Austrian army. They consider Flakturme flak tower as air-craft shelter. Guards do not permit to enter the territory but you can make a picture of a tower from the windows of stores nearby.
Fire control flak tower in Esterhazypark is 47 meters high. This German Luftwaffe L-tower (Lead tower) was equipped with low-caliber guns. Few stores used as hospital and aircraft shelter for civilians of Vienna. After the War this WW2 flak tower become the most “usable” among six Vienna flak towers. It was given to the Vienna municipality after 1945. From 1954 till 1962 control flak tower in Esterhazypark contained telescopes of local school and served as observatory. Flak tower was a place of great interest with the total volume of visits – 31 000. After 1957 some premises of former Vienna anti aircraft tower are in usage as Haus des Meeres (House of see) aquarium with 4000 square meters’ space on six floors. In 2015 Vienna municipality sold Flakturm for symbolic 1 euro to the aquarium. Today one of the walls is used as cliffhanger wall and a local kinder spot is settled nearby.
FLAKTURM IN AUGARTEN PARK
Two last Vienna anti aircraft towers in Augarten were constructed between July 1944 and January 1945 and were the last flak towers in Germany, despite ambitions plans of Luftwaffe and Adolf Hitler. Process of construction involved building-up of separate railway line to deliver all the materials to the future Flakturm site.
Gun Flak tower in Augarten is the highest ant the most technically sophisticated of all Luftwaffe Anti aircraft flak towers in Vienna and Third Reich. It was destined to be the only one of a kind. Initially this Vienna Flakturm was to have ten floors but gained thirteen with 55 meters’ total height. G-Tower in Augarten has roof of 3.5 meters thick. In 1946 local children played with fire within the premises and caused a fire and explosion of 2000 128 mm munition. Concrete roof jumped and a part of the whole construction was damaged. In 2006 one of the platform was took down and the whole flak tower was hardened with metal wires. Today one of the sides is covered with a title: “Never again” (meant World War Two and national socialism in Austria). Gun tower in Augarten is now a place for mobile antennas.
Fire Control Tower in Augarten is on 400 meters’ distance from G-Tower within the same park. Quadrate flak tower has sides of 31 and 18 meters. It is also a city property but out of use and abandoned. It was once plans for camp out open cinema on the roof and storage for computer hardware but it has failed to materialize.
Slavin Memorial in Bratislava
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Hitler in Linz and Leonding
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